Topic : How do nerves and hormones interact/work to maintain homeostasis of Cardiac output?
Question: How do hormones work to maintain homeostasis of stroke volume?
You need to research and discuss both neuro and endocrine components – rather than just pure homeostasis.
18.7 Stroke volume and heart rate are regulated to alter cardiac output (pp. 728–732)
1. Cardiac output, typically 5 L/min, is the amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle in 1 minute. Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each contraction. Cardiac output 5 heart rate × stroke volume.
2. Stroke volume depends to a large extent on the degree to which venous return stretches cardiac muscle. Approximately 70 ml, it is the difference between end diastolic volume (EDV) and end systolic volume (ESV). Anything that influences heart rate or blood volume influences venous return, hence stroke volume.
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