Explain why Absolute Age Determinations are made Primarily with Igneous Rocks.

Instructions

Explain why absolute age determinations are made primarily with igneous rocks. In answering this question, be sure to define an isotope and a half-life, and explain how the blocking temperature is related to when the clock starts in determining a radiometric age. 60. Explain the difference between the compositional and rheological layering of the Earth, using the transition between the lower mantle and the outer core as an example. Be sure to refer to both the composition and rheology of the lower mantle and outer core when describing the mantle-core transition. 61. Explain where the Moho is located, what the Moho is, and how the Moho was discovered. 62. In a single sentence each, explain the two most volumetrically important mechanisms for generating melt below Earth’s surface. Also for each mechanism, describe the most important tectonic setting where the process is likely to occur on Earth. 63. Define two main kinds of porosity found in aquifers. Explain how each may be formed, and which of the two types of porosity tends to be greater in (a) sedimentary aquifers and (b) igneous/metamorphic aquifers. In addition to porosity, describe one other property that is essential for an aquifer to possess. 64. Define the calcium carbonate compensation depth (CCD) in the ocean, and explain the influence of the CCD on the deposition of carbonate sediments on the seafloor. Where do you expect carbonate sediments to accumulate? In writing your explanation, be sure to make a comparison to the “snow line” commonly seen in mountainous areas on land. How does the CO2 content of seawater relate to the depth of the CCD?

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