Question 1a. Explain how BOTH of the following are different in your patient in comparison to a healthy, non-diabetic person.
(i) insulin synthesis and secretion and
(ii) insulin binding to its target cells
Question 1b. Explain the benefits of monitoring HbA1c in the management of your person’s/client’s disease.
Question 2a. Neuropathy and myocardial infarction are long-term consequences of poorly managed diabetes. Explain why they are more likely to occur in patients suffering from diabetes than in the non-diabetic population.
Question 2b. Both metformin and insulin may be used in the management of diabetes mellitus. By making meaningful references to your patient,
(i) Choose the one that is the most appropriate for the treatment of your patient,
(ii) Describe its mechanism of action, and
(iii) Explain why the drug you selected is the most appropriate for the treatment of your patient.
Question 3. Define insulin resistance and explain the link between apple-type obesity and insulin resistance.
Question 2a. The clinical manifestations of an acute asthma attack may include the following signs and symptoms:
Cough Airway oedema
Hypoxia Increased respiratory rate
Wheeze Increased heart rate
Tight chest Dyspnoea
Choose one clinical manifestation from GROUP A and one from GROUP B and relate them to the underlying pathophysiology for your person. In your answer, explain the link between an acute asthma attack and both signs/symptoms you chose.
Question 2b. Salbutamol and corticosteroids are used in the management of asthma. Explain the mechanism of action of these two medications and their benefits in managing your patient’s condition.
Adequate education of patients suffering from/prone to asthma attacks is important in asthma management. Briefly summarize the advice you would give to your patient in respect to
ii. Strategies relating to effective prevention and management of their acute asthmatic episodes.
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