BIOL121 Biological Sciences

Task  1. Scenario – Sarah Sarah is a 28yo female who has presented to the antenatal clinic for a routine prenatal visit. She has generally felt very well throughout her pregnancy and exercised regularly but is starting to feel more and more tired as her pregnancy progresses. Sarah reports she has been suffering from severe headaches over the last week or so and has been taking paracetamol capsules to dull the pain. She also reports some discomfort in her upper abdomen after eating and drinking and swelling in her feet and ankles. Sarah is vegan and, although she considers her fluid and caloric intake to be adequate, admits that she probably isn’t careful enough when ensuring she eats enough high calcium foods. A physical examination and urinalysis were conducted. Results below. Physical examination:  Height 164 cm Weight 63 kg Appearance Clean, neat appearance, mild oedema in feet and ankles Pregnancy status Primigravida 34/52 Temperature 36.2?C Blood work Blood group: O- Blood glucose = 6 mmol/L BP 150/95 mm Hg Respiratory rate 22 bpm Diet Vegan, low calcium intake Past patient history Non-smoker. Regular check-ups during pregnancy.  – All topics and their key points listed below must be discussed in your essay Topic 1: Reproduction Breast tissue contains glandular structures relevant to Sarah’s reproductive function. Note the role of this glandular tissue in reproductive function. Discuss any likely changes in the activity and regulation of this tissue, in relation to Sarah. Ensure you include discussion of relevant hormones in your response. Considering Sarah’s circumstances, describe the future role of oxytocin on uterine tissue during childbirth. Topic 2: Renal Evaluate Sarah’s urinalysis. Using your knowledge of normal kidney function and urine formation, explain any abnormal values, and the possible underlying mechanisms. Given Sarah’s pregnancy, discuss any changes you would expect to see in her glomerular filtration rate. Topic 3: Digestion/metabolism Discuss whether you would expect Sarah’s gut motility to have increased or decreased from normal. Include discussion of EITHER peristalsis or segmentation in your explanation.  Sarah had avocado on toast at her favourite café before attending her clinic appointment. Discuss the mechanical and chemical events required to absorb the ingested fats in Sarah’s meal. State the hormone that will be MOST active in maintaining Sarah’s blood calcium levels if adequate calcium is not obtained from her diet?  Explain your answer. Topic 4: Pharmacology Sarah indicated that she has taken paracetamol capsules for her headaches over the last week Discuss the route of administration, where the drug is likely to be absorbed after administration, and its likely bioavailability. Justify your response by discussing whether the drug would be subjected to hepatic first pass.  Discuss the importance of the half-life of a drug. What is the estimated half-life of paracetamol? Using this estimate, calculate the amount of time it would take to achieve steady-state concentration and explain the importance of achieving steady state.  2. Scenario: Jessica Jessica is a 40yo marathon runner who has presented to her GP clinic after completing a training run. She runs four to five times per week and does yoga or Pilates on the other days. Jessica has experienced light- headedness, and significant muscle pain after her last three runs. Whilst talking to the clinic nurse, Jessica admits to feeling lethargic, and like her “heart is racing”. She has also been a little unsteady on her feet and stumbled climbing the stairs in her home the previous evening. She reveals that, and although she is still eating well and drinking adequate fluids, her caloric intake has been less than usual. She has lost 2kg in the last month and her last period was 5 months ago. Blood and urine tests ruled out pregnancy as a cause of amenorrhea. Jessica applied Nurofen Gel, a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), to her quadriceps and calves immediately after this morning’s run, hoping to relieve some of her muscle soreness. A medical history was taken, and urinalysis conducted, identifying the following: Height 173 cm Weight 61 kg Appearance Dry lips, poor skin turgor, dark circles under eyes Temperature 38.6?C Blood Group O- HR 86 bpm BP 87/58 mm Hg Respiratory rate 25 bpm Diet High protein, high intake of fruit and vegetables; High carbohydrate after marathon Body composition Low body fat Past patient history Torn meniscus in right knee, surgically repaired; one caesarean delivery 14 years ago. Takes fish oil and calcium supplements. Relies upon barrier methods for contraception. Social status Married with two teenage children.   Urinalysis Colour Dark yellow Blood – Bilirubin – Urobilinogen 0.2 Ketone + Protein ++ Nitrite – Glucose – pH 5.5 Specific Gravity 1.015 Leucocytes – All topics and their key points listed below must be discussed in your essay Topic 1: Reproduction Endometrial tissue contains glandular structures relevant to Jessica’s reproductive function. Explain the role of this glandular tissue in reproductive function, including any likely changes from normal in the secretion and resultant effects for Jessica. Considering Jessica and her current circumstances, describe the role of oestrogen and explain whether you expect her oestrogen levels to be varied from normal. Your discussion should include the homeostatic regulation of female reproductive physiology and the relevant glands and hormones in your response. Topic 2: Renal Evaluate Jessica’s urinalysis. Using your knowledge of normal kidney function and urine formation, explain any abnormal values, and the possible underlying mechanisms. Topic 3: Digestion/metabolism Jessica supplements her diet with a daily protein shake after exercise. Discuss why maintenance of adequate protein intake is important for Jessica’s for bone health. Discuss the mechanical and chemical events required to absorb the ingested protein in Jessica’s shake. State the hormone that is MOST active in maintaining Jessica’s blood glucose levels during a marathon. Explain your answer.   Topic 4: Pharmacology Jessica has used Nurofen Gel to ease her aching muscles. Discuss the benefits of this route of administration over an oral capsule in providing a higher bioavailability of the drug. Discuss the importance of the half-life of a drug. What is the estimated half-life of ibuprofen (the active ingredient in Nurofen gel)? Using this estimate, calculate the amount of time it would take to achieve steady-state concentration and explain the importance of achieving steady state. 3. Case Study: Mateo Mateo is a 72yo male who lives alone since their partner died 2 years ago. They have come to see their GP today as they have had several episodes where they felt faint, and “may even have passed out on a couple of occasions”. It is some time since Mateo attended the clinic and you note when weighing them that they have lost a significant amount of weight and do not present as the robust, active older person you remember. Mateo mentions they don’t cook much and rely on the takeaway shop around the corner for most food these days. Mateo explains they have been very lonely since losing their partner but is excited to reveal a new zest for life after meeting a new friend, whom they are seeing a least once a week. This relationship has developed sexually, but Mateo has had some difficulty performing. Mateo thought it was their prostate giving them trouble but has also bought some Viagra nasal spray over the internet at the urging of their new partner. Physical examination:  Height 178 cm Weight 70 kg Appearance Clean, dry skin, thin, significant muscle wastage Temperature 37.6?C Blood Group AB+ HR 80 bpm BP 105/66 mm Hg Respiratory rate 22 bpm Diet Low fibre, high fat Past patient history Mobility issues due to osteoarthritis, previously hypertensive Social status Living at home, lonely, lately has occasional sexual contact Urinalysis Blood – Bilirubin – Urobilinogen 0.1 Ketone +++ Protein – Nitrite – Glucose – pH 6.0 Specific Gravity 1.035 Leucocytes + All topics and their key points listed below must be discussed in your essay Topic 1: Reproduction Prostate tissue contains glandular structures relevant to Mateo’s reproductive function. Explain the role of this glandular tissue in reproductive function, including any likely changes from normal in the secretion and resultant effects for Mateo.  Considering Mateo’s current circumstances, describe the role of testosterone and explain whether you expect their testosterone levels to be varied from normal. Your discussion should include the homeostatic regulation of male reproductive physiology and the relevant, glands, cells, and hormones in your response. Topic 2: Renal Describe the role of the kidneys in maintaining fluid balance with reference to the role of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Considering Mateo’s circumstances and urinalysis results, discuss whether they are at risk of not maintaining homeostatic fluid mechanisms? Topic 3: Digestion/metabolism Considering Mateo’s circumstances, discuss why maintenance of adequate protein intake is important for their muscle function. Mateo has had a large box of potato fries for lunch. Discuss the mechanical and chemical events required for Mateo to absorb the ingested carbohydrates. State the hormone that is most active in maintaining Mateo’s blood glucose levels at this time. Explain your answer. Topic 4: Pharmacology Mateo has used a nasal Viagra spray improve sexual performance. Discuss the route of administration, where the drug is likely to be absorbed after administration, and its likely bioavailability. Justify your response by discussing whether the drug would be subjected to hepatic first pass. Discuss the importance of the half-life of a drug. Assuming there is 100% absorption, and the half-life of Viagra is 4 hours, calculate the % of drug that is likely to be present in Mateo’s blood after 20 hours.
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