ScenarioAs the new business analyst for your health organization, you – Free Nursing Tutor

 ScenarioAs the new business analyst for your health organization, you are charged with the task of completing a community needs assessment in order to support the Chief Executive Officer’s proposed mobile clinic unit. The unit will contain a variety of services including health education, medical and dental screenings, HIV testing, a syringe exchange program, and diabetes, asthma, and cardiovascular disease management services. Your first step in conducting the needs assessment is to develop a draft of the proposal of the assessment for your CEO’s approval. Once the CEO has approved the assessment proposal, the complete assessment will be conducted.

Instructions

Your draft of the proposed assessment should include: Use the information from attached powerpoint. 

  • An executive summary outlining the challenges facing the local community (you may focus on any community, including your own).
  • A description of the community’s population (age, median income, educational status, and other relevant factors describing the community). You will need to research the demographics in your selected community using sites such as the Kaiser Family Foundation.
  • A discussion of the potential barriers that may restrict access to care.
  • An assessment of key indicators that a mobile clinic is necessary (e.g., high incidence of obesity or drug dependence).
  • Recommendations for resources, both human and technical.
  • Create a survey to gain input from the community. (You should also discuss how you plan to administer the survey and analyze the results).

Rubric:-Comprehensive executive summary outlining the challenges facing the local community.-Clear and thorough description of the community’s population (age, median income, educational status, and other relevant factors describing the community).-Clear and thorough discussion of the potential barriers that may restrict access to care.-Comprehensive assessment of key indicators that a mobile clinic is necessary.-Clear and thorough recommendations for resources, both human and technical.-Comprehensive survey created to gain input from the community. 

Week 5 For this assignment, make sure you post your – Free Nursing Tutor

Week 5

For this assignment, make sure you post your initial response to the Discussion Area by the due date assigned.

Respond to the following questions using the lessons and vocabulary found in the readings.

In the Supplemental Material below, read the case study “Apple Computer, Inc.: Maintaining the Music Business While Introducing iPhone and Apple TV.” 

Based on the information, evaluate the three basic approaches used by Apple to produce innovation. Be sure to support your views with research, rationale, and appropriate examples.

Your posting should be the equivalent of 1 to 2 single-spaced pages (500–1000 words) in length.

Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. Respond to at least two of your classmates. Participate in the discussion by asking a question, providing a statement of clarification, providing a point of view with a rationale, challenging an aspect of the discussion, or indicating a relationship between two or more lines of reasoning in the discussion. Complete your participation for this assignment by the end of the week.

Advocacy is a form of engagement that can occur in – Free Nursing Tutor

 Advocacy is a form of engagement that can occur in many areas. As you complete this course, reflect on the ways in which a passion expressed as a goal can become social change. Then, focus on how you might be able to become an advocate, become an advocate, both for your community and practice. You will learn more about social change and advocacy in your future policy courses.

To Prepare

Recall the policies you have examined and researched throughout the course. (Violence Against Women Act of VAWA policy)

Consider the social issues examined in this course and the ones you have encountered in your own practice or community.

Reflect on your inspiration and goals in social work. 

After carefully reading the premise, write an expository paragraph about – Free Nursing Tutor

After carefully reading the premise, write an expository paragraph about what you have read. If a situation arises that prevents you from completing it, contact your professor immediately. 

Objectives

  1. Apply concepts of good writing.

Competencies

Instructions

Use the Writing Process Worksheet to summarize this paragraph in your own words. 

Handwashing is one important step that helps limit the spread of germs. Before and after contact with each patient, wet your hands and wrists. Work soap into lather, getting between fingers and under nails. Lower hands with fingernails downward and rise well. Dry your hands carefully with a PPR towel. Turn off the water tap with a PPR towel to avoid any germs on the faucet. Apply lotion of desired. 

The Writing Process Worksheet

  1. Prewriting: Write down facts, organize ideas
  2. Writing: Write without concern for grammar or punctuation
  3. Rewriting: Correct grammar, make changes using proofreader’s’ marks
  4. Finalizing: Type or write final copy
  5. Proofread: Read the final copy aloud for a final check

There are 6 forces that stimulate change. They are: Technology – Free Nursing Tutor

 There are 6 forces that stimulate change. They are:

  1. Technology
  2. Changing nature of the workforce
  3. Economic shocks
  4. Competition
  5. Social trends
  6. World politics

Which of these forces impacts your organization the most?  What is the impact of these forces to change within your organization?

This is to be in narrative form. Bullet points should not to be used. The paper should be at least 1.5 – 2 pages in length, Times New Roman 12-pt font, double-spaced, 1 inch margins and utilizing at least one outside scholarly or professional source related to organizational behavior. This does not mean blogs or websites. This source should be a published article in a scholarly journal. This source should provide substance and not just be mentioned briefly to fulfill this criteria. The textbook should also be utilized. Do not use quotes. Do not insert excess line spacing. APA formatting and citation should be used. 

The United Nations (UN) has hired you as a consultant, – Free Nursing Tutor

The United Nations (UN) has hired you as a consultant, your task is to assess the impact that global warming is expected to have on population growth and the ability of societies in the developing world to ensure the adequate security of their food supplies.

Case Assessment Summary (see below) (Do not include this information in your written paper).

As the world’s population nears ten (10) billion by 2050, the effects of global warming are stripping some natural resources from the environment. As they diminish in number, developing countries will face mounting obstacles to improving the livelihoods of their citizens and stabilizing their access to enough food. The reason these governments are struggling even now is that our climate influences their economic health and the consequent diminishing living standards of their peoples. Climate changes are responsible for the current loss of biodiversity as well as the physical access to some critical farming regions. As such, these changes in global weather patterns diminish agricultural output and the distribution of food to local and international markets. These difficulties will become even more significant for these countries as the Earth’s climate changes for the worse. Temperatures are already increasing incrementally, and polar ice caps are melting, so the salient question is: what does this suggest for developing societies?

The issue before the developing world is not its lack of food, but how to gain access to food. Simply put, changes in our climate are affecting the global food chain, and hence, the living standards of entire populations. Added to this is the fact that food is not getting to where it is needed in time to prevent hunger or starvation. In many developing countries, shortages are due to governments’ control over distribution networks rather than an insufficient supply of food itself. In effect, these governments are weaponizing food by favoring certain ethnic or religious groups over others. When added to dramatic climate changes that we are experiencing even now, the future for billions of poor people looks increasingly dim.

INSTRUCTIONS (TOPIC STATEMENTS)

You are to write a minimum of a 5-page persuasive paper for the United Nations council that addresses the following questions about the relationship between atmospheric weather patterns and food security in the developing world: DO NOT INCLUDE THE ACTUAL QUESTION IN YOUR PAPER: SIMPLY INCLUDE A SHORT TOPIC LABEL (see #7 under Guidelines)

  • Climate change and global warming are often used interchangeably, but they are not the same phenomenon. What are the differences between the two concepts and what leads to the confusion between them?
  • In 1900, the average global temperature was about 13.7° Celsius (56.7° Fahrenheit) (Osborn, 2021), but as of 2020, the temperature has risen another 1.2°C to 14.9°C (58.9°F). According to the Earth and climate science community, if the Earth’s surface temperature rises another 2°C (3.6°F), we will suffer catastrophic weather patterns that, among other things, will raise sea levels, cause widespread droughts and wildfires, result in plant, insect, and animal extinctions, and reduce agricultural productivity throughout the world (Mastroianni, 2015 and Lindsey & Dahlman, 2020). How much credibility do you place in these projections? Why?
  • There is no question that the Earth’s food sources are threatened by changes in its weather patterns, but what specific challenges does climate change pose to the food security of people in the developing world?
  • There is currently a debate among some multinational lending agencies like the International Monetary Fund, UNICEF, and AID over the financial support for food security has been misused by recipient government officials. On the other hand, U.S. authorities insist that misuse of its assistance is not occurring because it has strict monitoring oversight in place. What is your position on this matter? Is there evidence that financial assistance to developing governments is being widely misused by government officials?

Guidelines and Selection of Developing Country for this assignment:

  • This course requires the use of Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). For assistance and information, please refer to the SWS link in the left-hand menu of your course and check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Your paper must be divided into required pages of content (one page to address each of the four questions above) and include at least a one-half page introduction and a one-half page conclusion – making a minimum total of five full pages of text.
  • Begin your paper with a complete Introduction that includes your role as a hired United Nations consultant, the purpose of this assignment and why this research is important. You may add more content, however, at a minimum please include these factors in your introduction. A written Abstract is not required for this paper.
  • Select at least one (1) Developing Country for Questions 3 and 4. You will find the list of developing countries in the World Bank List of Developing Countries in the Course Info section of BlackBoard. I prefer that you select two (2) developing countries in case one country’s climate change and food security information is more difficult to locate.
  • You must use at least seven (7) credible academic sources (no older than 7 years) (Do Not Use Wikipedia, dictionaries, blogs, and encyclopedias) for this assignment.
  • You must use properly cited intext citations (in the actual content of your paper) in addition to including a REFERENCE page. Intext citations must be aligned with the Reference page. 
  • DO NOT include the actual topic questions in your paper. Use a short title instead, for example instead of adding all the Question #2 content to your paper, simply add the words “Earth Climate Impacts” as a label or heading. 
  • You must use only double-spacing and not place extra spacing between paragraphs or section headings.
  • Please use the GRAMMARLY writing program as you research and draft your papers.

PROFESSOR’S ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS (REQUIRED): 1) Include a Title page with the following information (Title of Assignment, Student’s Full Name, Strayer University, Date of Submission, Professor’s name: Dr. G. Royal-Smith).

2) The body of your paper (written content) must contain properly cited intext citations using SWS guidelines.  

3) This assignment must contain a page of properly cited references sources titled as the Reference page. 

4) This paper must be submitted to the SafeAssign Plagiarism Program via BlackBoard.  Papers that are not submitted, cannot be opened for grading, or cannot be read in SafeAssign due to incompatibility with the SA program may receive a zero score. It is the student’s responsibility to submit a GRADE READY paper and to make sure that the paper is BlackBoard compatible.

5) Week 6 Assignment Papers must be submitted on time. Once the assignment area closes, it will remain closed. Late Papers may be penalized according to Strayer University and SOC 450 Late Assignment policies. 

6) Assignments must be the original work of students utilizing credible and properly cited sources. Students will be notified of significant similarity scores, or other irregularities contained in the submitted assignment. Assignment papers that are deemed to be plagiarized will be further evaluated by Dr. Royal-Smith and the Office of Student Affairs (Academic Integrity). If plagiarism is substantiated, the Office of Student Affairs will provide recommendations including (but not limited to) a failing grade for the assignment or other actions. 

7) NOTE!!! If you are RE-TAKING this course and have submitted the Week 6 paper to the SafeAssign area, DO NOT resubmit this same paper! Contact me for further instructions. 

8) Please take this assignment seriously, follow ALL instructions, guidelines, and additional instructions. The assignment will require planned time management for research and drafting.

9) I will provide more detailed information and writing aids over the next few weeks. It is important to begin work on this assignment immediately as this assignment is quite time consuming. If you have questions or need assistance, please do not hesitate to contact me.  

The Selected Developing Countries are India and South Africa.

Write a 2-3 page paper that examines the moral and – Free Nursing Tutor

Write a 2-3 page paper that examines the moral and ethical issues involved in making a decision regarding limiting life support.

End-of-Life Issues

With our framework of ethical theories and principles in hand, we begin our look at some of the critical ethical issues in our contemporary world, starting with end-of-life issues. This assessment covers ethical questions related to end-of-life care. Passive euthanasia is the removal or refusal of life-sustaining treatment. Examples of passive euthanasia include removal of a feeding tube or a ventilator, or forgoing a life-prolonging surgery. Passive euthanasia is legal in all 50 states, and the principle of autonomy gives informed patients the right to refuse any and all treatments. Patients who are unable to make such decisions in the moment (because they are unconscious, for example) might have made their intentions clear beforehand with an advance directive or similar document. Things become more complicated, however, when a patient who is unable to make treatment choices has not made his or her wishes clear, either formally in a written document, or informally in conversations with family members or friends. Another problem concerns cases in which there is disagreement about whether the treatment is sustaining the life of a person in the full sense or merely as a body that, because of severe and irreversible brain trauma, is no longer truly a living person.

Active euthanasia, or assisted suicide, introduces further difficult moral questions. A patient who has a terminal illness and who has refused treatments that would merely prolong a potentially very painful and debilitating death might want the process of dying to be hastened and made less painful. The patient might want to take his or her own life before the disease reaches its horrible final stages. Should patients be legally allowed to have help in this endeavor? If suicide itself is not morally wrong, at least in cases like these, is it wrong for another person to directly help bring about the patient’s death? Is it wrong for doctors, a role we naturally associate with healing and the promotion of life, to use their medical expertise to deliberately end a patient’s life if the patient wants this?

Demonstration of Proficiency

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

Competency 1: Articulate ethical issues in health care.

Articulate the moral issues associated with limiting life support.

Competency 2: Apply sound ethical thinking related to a health care issue.

Demonstrate sound ethical thinking and relevant ethical principles when considering limiting life support.

Explain important considerations that arise when contemplating limiting life support.

Competency 5: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and respectful of the diversity, dignity, and integrity of others and is consistent with health care professionals.

Exhibit proficiency in clear and effective academic writing skills.

Preparation

Case Study: Mr. Martinez.

This media piece provides the context for this assessment; make sure you have reviewed the case study thoroughly.

Additionally, it may be useful to think through the following issues as they relate to Mr. Martinez’s case:

Should Mr. Martinez be transferred to intensive care, where his respiratory failure can be treated by a ventilator, and by CPR if necessary, and his oxygen level can be monitored?

What are the key ethical issues or models at play in this case study?

What are the key end-of-life issues at play in this case study?

How can an understanding of models and best-practice help to guide health care practitioners to make ethical and legal decisions?

Instructions

In a 2–3 page analysis of the case study, address the following:

The patient’s directives.

The patient’s quality of life.

The family’s stated preferences.

The moral issues associated with limiting life support.

The ethical principles most relevant to reaching an ethically sound decision.

Important considerations such as implications, justifications, and any conflicts of interest that might arise because of the patient’s respiratory failure.

When writing your assessment submission assume that doctors cannot contact Mrs. Martinez and must make this choice on their own. To help you reach an objective, ethically sound decision, draw upon concepts and arguments from the suggested resources or your independent research. Support your response with clear, concise, and correct examples, weaving and citing the readings and media throughout your answer.

Submission Requirements

Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message.

APA formatting: Resources and citations are formatted according to current APA style and formatting guidelines. Refer to Evidence and APA for guidance.

Length: 2–3 typed, double-spaced pages.

Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.

+This is the case study:

Ethics of End-Of-Life Issues

CASE ONE

“Joe contracts bilateral pneumonia. He is treated with antibiotics and put on a mechanical respirator. After a few weeks, the pneumonia improves and the physician starts to wean Joe from the respirator. Even with a gradual approach, the weaning fails and Joe demands to be put back on the respirator when he becomes terrified at being short of breath. The physician feels that the ultimate chances of weaning Joe are no more than 20 percent. Joe, 80 years old and accustomed to being in control, becomes discouraged and increasingly unable to bear the painful medical procedures (constant intravenous feedings, frequent needle punctures for arterial blood gases, suctioning, etc.) After three weeks of unsuccessful attempts, Joe refuses to cooperate. He asks that the respirator be disconnected. “I want to die,” he states. Despite the pain, Joe is alert and aware and is, in the opinion of the staff, fully competent. His wife and one son keep begging the physicians and nurses to do something to help Joe recover fully.” (Garrett, Baillie & Garrett, 2001, p. 194)

Consider These Questions

“Does Joe have a right to refuse treatment on the respirator? Do the physician and the nurses have a right or duty to help Joe psychologically and pharmacologically to overcome his anxiety when taken off the respirator? Do the wishes of the family have ethical or legal weight in such cases? Physicians are often sued for keeping a person on a respirator … is the mere fact that the family may sue a justification for not following the expressed wishes of a competent person?” (Garrett, et al., 2001, p. 194)

Ethical Rationale

“There is a dispute as to whether the difference between active and passive killing is of any ethical significance in the context of euthanasia…This dispute has become an important issue in the legal discussion of physician-assisted suicide … The terms are, at least descriptively useful, and since society still accepts the distinction as having some ethical utility, it is disregarded at one’s risk. … should it be considered that active euthanasia ought, with suitable safeguards, be made legal?” (Garrett, et al., p. 195, 2001)

ACTIVITY ONE

Thinking about Joe’s case, answer the following questions. Choose one per question.

Question 1: Would these actions, even at the patient’s request, be classified as active or passive euthanasia?

Active

Passive

Correct Answer: Passive

Joe’s case would count as passive euthanasia, since he’s refusing life-saving treatment. Passive euthanasia is usually considered an act of omission: to take no steps that would, if taken, prevent a patient from dying

Inorrect Answer: Active

Active euthanasia is a deliberate and definite action that would cause a patient to die. The difference is sometimes put this way: passive euthanasia is allowing apatient to die, while active is directly causing them to die.

Question 2: Does Joe have a right to refuse treatment on the respirator?

Yes– The “full recovery” that his family asks for may not be realistic. Staff consider him competent to make his own decisions, and legally he may refuse treatment.

No– Joe’s family know him better than the staff, and they should be granted control over the decisions regarding his care. The health care providers should defer to their wishes in order to avoid a lawsuit.

Correct Answer: There is no correct answer. There may not be a clear answer in this case. If Joe is competent (as we’re told in the study), and there’s a rigorous set of steps in place for staff to determine competency, then he has a moral right to refuse all treatment, and possibly a legal right in many, if not all, states. On the other hand, an argument could be made that Joe can be declared competent only if staff have taken steps to treat his anxiety.

CASE TWO

“Elizabeth Bouvia was diagnosed as having cerebral palsy at the age of six months. At age 10 she was placed in an orthopedic hospital, where she remained for seven years.

She earned a B.S. degree in social work, married and for a year attempted unsuccessfully to have a child. Her husband, whom she had met as a pen pal while he was serving a sentence in jail, has left her. Elizabeth has dropped out of graduate school because of difficulties in finding a clinical placement required for her program. As a result of this, the state has threatened to take away her assistance to transportation.

At this time, Elizabeth Bouvia has admitted herself voluntarily to the hospital on the grounds that she is suicidal, a quadriplegic victim of cerebral palsy and confined to a wheelchair. She has limited control of her right hand and she needs to be fed. She also has severe progressive arthritis that causes constant pain. Her condition is in no way life threatening, and she has a life expectancy of 15 to 20 years.

She seems to have plans to starve herself to death in the hospital, away from friends and relatives. She has refused to eat solid food, The physician has threatened to have her certified as mentally ill so that he can force-feed her. The hospital also has threatened to put her out on the sidewalk. The hospital seeks to transfer her to another facility, but is unsuccessful. In the meantime, the hospital force-feeds Elizabeth. She repeatedly tears the nasogastric tubes from her nose. The tube is forcibly reinserted each time she removes it.

Elizabeth seeks legal assistance. The American Civil Liberties Union enters the case and applies for a court order restraining the hospital from discharging her or force-feeding her. Bouvia testifies that she is no longer willing to live, since she found it disgusting and humiliating to live so dependent a life. She wants to starve to death while nurses give her painkillers and keep her clean and comfortable. She has a metabolic condition that causes her blood to become excessively acidic without food. One internist treating her estimates that she could be dead within five days because of the condition.

The first court decided that Bouvia had a legal right to starve herself to death at home, but not to demand that a health care facility help her while she did this. Another court finally decided that she had a right to hospital care while starving herself to death. Many hearings later, Bouvia was still alive. This might justify a health care provider who said that Bouvia was only seeking attention and knew how to work the system.” (Garrett, et al., pp 194-195, 2001)

Consider These Questions

“Will any of the theories of suicide permit Bouvia to deliberately starve herself to death? Is Bouvia competent? Would the hospital be ethical in getting a guardian ad litum who could then consent to a feeding tube? Would it be ethical for health care providers to cooperate with someone who is not terminally ill and still has the minimum quality of life, that is, is able to interact with others?” (Garrett, et al., p. 195, 2001)

Ethical Rationale

What are the current laws “with regard to the right of non-terminal patients or their surrogates to refuse treatment or demand withdrawal of treatment, including the withdrawal of nutrition and hydration?” (Garrett, et al., p. 195, 2001)

ACTIVITY TWO

Thinking about Elizabeth’s case, answer the following questions. Choose one per question.

Question 1: Will any of the theories of suicide permit Bouvia to deliberately starve herself to death?

Religious and theological: Human lives belong to God.

Human life is so precious: Life is the greatest of all human goods.

Consequentialist: Suicide harms the community.

The Wedge Principle: Suicide harms other individuals.

Greenberg’s Paternalism: These individuals do not really want to die, so efforts to save them are justified.

Correct Answer: There are no correct or incorrect answers.

Although active suicide is discouraged by all of these theories, “All major theories appear to allow room for exceptions” that may open the door to an ethical acceptance of passive suicide (Garrett, p. 171). In the theories offered in this question, this often involves the concepts of compassion and mercy for the suffering individual. However, this does not mean that the facility and caregivers are legally able to condone Bouvia’s requests. (Theories credited to Garret et al, p. 169-173)

Moral theories and ethical principles, and what is their role in health care ethics.

Moral theories are attempts to explain the nature of morality, and to establish foundations for our own moral decisions and moral judgments about the actions of others. In doing so, moral theories look either to human nature or to a source beyond human nature, as religiously oriented theories do. Philosophers have long been interested in trying to understand morality by moving beyond common sense beliefs about right and wrong and to find foundations for common sense beliefs that will both correct them, when needed, and lend them rational support. Here are the moral theories most relevant to health care ethics:

Utilitarianism

Deontology

Natural Law Theory

Virtue Ethics

Ethical principles are not as foundational as moral theories. Rather they can be grounded in common sense moral beliefs about right and wrong and also in widely shared values. The fundamental ethical principles of health care are commonly accepted to be the following:

Autonomy

Beneficence

Non-malfeasance

Justice

Question 2: Should the hospital cooperate with her wishes?

Yes– “The individual person and not the community is the intrinsic good” (p. 170 ) Individual autonomy is paramount; Bouvia has the right to make her own decision to not have her actions interfered with. Court cases have set relevant precedents. Legally, the patient has the right to refuse treatment. Controlled cooperation on the part of the caregivers is appropriate in this scenario.

No– Because Bouvia admitted herself to the care of a healthcare facility as a suicide risk, she relinquished some of her rights. The facility and caregivers have a responsibility to keep her alive.

Correct Answer: No– Because Bouvia admitted herself to the care of a healthcare facility as a suicide risk, she relinquished some of her rights. The facility and caregivers have a responsibility to keep her alive.

Bouvia admitted herself into the facility as a potential suicide. There’s an ongoing debate as to whether anyone who is not terminally ill has a right to receive assistance in ending their own life. Bouvia’s case is complex, since it’s somewhat between active and passive euthanasia. She’s not asking for assistance in ending her life in terms of receiving and having health care workers administer drugs to her that would end her life. However, she is asking for help in dying painlessly (starving herself, but with the aid of painkillers).

Moral theories and ethical principles, and what is their role in health care ethics.

Both moral theories and ethical principles can be used in the health care setting to guide our attempts to reach sound moral decisions and judgments. They support viewpoints by providing them greater objectivity. By using a moral theory or ethical principle, one can move beyond merely voicing an opinion. The theories and principles enable us to construct arguments. When we are able to provide arguments for our views, we offer reasons, or evidence, for our views that should be compelling to others. In other words, moral theories and ethical principles in debates in health care ethics can take us beyond mere subjective feeling and into the realm of rationally supported positions.

ACTIVITY COMPLETE

Congratulations! You have completed the this activity.

For more information to guide you through these questions and prepare you for your assessments, you may refer to these optional websites:

How the Four Principles of Health Care Ethics Improve Patient Care

Basic Principles of Medical Ethics

Principles of Bioethics

References:

Garrett, T. M., Baillie, H. W. & Garrett, R. M. (2013). Health Care Ethics: Principles and Problems, 6th Ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle NJ.

Credits

Subject Matter Expert: Mulberry, Greig

Interactive Design: Rai, Deo

Instructional Design: Lepro, Connie

Project Manager: Hall, Nakeela

This writing is for a sociology class which is writing – Free Nursing Tutor

This writing is for a sociology class which is writing a memo which you need to summarize, reflect and ask two questions from the reading based on the two readings given below.

In this memo, you need to

1) briefly summarize (1-2 sentences) the main point/argument of each reading

2) discuss your thoughts/impressions/comments related to the readings overall.

3) Ask two questions from the readings.

Readings:-

  1. Blofield, M., Khalifa, A., Madera, N., & Pieper, J. (2021). The Shadow Pandemic: Policy Efforts on Gender-Based Violence during COVID-19 in the Global South.
  2. Moussawi, Ghassan. 2015: “(Un)Critically Queer Organizing: Towards a More Complex Analysis of LGBTQ Organizing in Lebanon.” Sexualities 18(5-6): 593-617.

NOTE: I have attached the readings and an example of the memo to see what the format looks like if that helps, use only the reading material provided above. One page single spaced.

Thank you!!!

Requirements: 1 single spaced pages

Fraud is intentional deceit or trickery that results in a – Free Nursing Tutor

Fraud is intentional deceit or trickery that results in a misstatement of the financial statements. Management is responsible for taking steps to reduce the risk of fraud. After quite a few instances of fraud in many large, publicly owned companies in recent years, a number of accounting reforms have been instituted to safeguard against fraud. One major change was the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) of 2002.

SOX included a set of reforms that toughened penalties for corporate fraud, restricted the types of consulting that CPAs can perform for audit clients, and created the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB). SOX requires publicly-traded companies to follow government policies and procedures.

Since cash is the most liquid of all assets, it needs to be safeguarded. Both large and small companies are susceptible to fraud and other unethical activities without proper controls in place. Managers and business owners can protect against fraud by using an internal control system to protect their assets. An effective control system can also help businesses to conduct reliable accounting, operate efficiently, and encourage employees to follow company policies.

To ensure that the internal controls implemented around cash are designed properly, there should be a segregation of duties:

  • Recordkeeping
  • Custody
  • Authorization
  • Reconciliation

In an ideal situation, there should be one individual assigned the responsibility of only one component. The record-keeping function of an asset should be separated from the custody of an asset. In addition, the individual responsible for authorizing a transaction related to cash should not be the same person that has custody of that cash or performs the recordkeeping. Furthermore, reconciliations should be completed by different individuals to ensure that the internal controls are working effectively. This includes doing physical audits, checks, and reviews of internal control procedures that are in place to catch errors in time and to avoid fraud. We’ll dive into this further in this activity.

Now that you understand the segregation of employee duties, imagine you own a small retail business and employ four employees. Prepare a one-to-two page report in which you respond to the following prompts. If you use any additional resources, use APA format for your citations.

  • Identify the type of company you own and briefly describe the nature of your business. Perhaps you sell shoes, clothing, furniture, or computers. You might own a restaurant or a small drug store or a small walk-in health clinic.
  • Identify at least two kinds of internal control procedures that you can implement to protect your cash.
    • How would you protect the inventory in your warehouse?
    • How would you protect the cash in your cash register?
    • How would you protect your electronic data, such as banking information?
  • How can internal controls help to protect your cash receipts and disbursements?
  • How can you use technology to implement an effective internal control system to help your business? Explain your answer.

On the morning of September 11, 2001, two airplanes, American – Free Nursing Tutor

On the morning of September 11, 2001, two airplanes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, collided into the north and south towers (the main “Twin Towers”) of the World Trade Center complex in New York City. Shortly thereafter, as a result of fires caused by burning jet fuel and falling debris, the Twin Towers collapsed (south tower – 9:59 am; north tower – 10:28 am), resulting in significant damage to remaining five other towers that made up the complex and the buildings in the vicinity. The collisions were the result of acts of terrorism perpetrated by a foreign terrorist group.

Larry Silverstein, the leaseholder of the WTC Properties, entered a 99-year lease of the complex just a few months prior to the attacks. To protect his lease, Mr. Silverstein had multiple layers of insurance placed on the complex through various insurance companies. After the attacks, Mr. Silverstein sought to collect on the various insurance policies, arguing that the attacks were two separate instances of an “occurrence” under the respective policies and as such, the policies should cover the resulting damage separately. The insurers challenged Mr. Silverstein’s position (some of the insurers argued that the attack constituted one continuous attack, although multiple planes were involved). Litigation ensued.

 Additional information regarding the WTC litigation:

  • The litigation with the insurers took over 6 years to finalize through settlement.
  • There were over seven different insurers involved. The insurers included primary coverage insurers (they provided the initial layer of coverage on the property) and excess insurers (these insurers covered the property above the primary insurer(s), and other excess insurers, but only up to their additional limit of coverage). 
  • Mr. Silverstein originally argued that the attacks were two separate occurrences under the respective insurance policies, valued at $3.5 billion each. Thus, he argued that the insurers were collectively responsible, under their respective policies and up to their respective limits of liability, for $7 billion in insurance coverage. 
  • After a series of court hearings, the court determined that the maximum that could be recovered from the insurers was $4.68 billion.
  • Through a series of settlement negotiations with the insurers, Mr. Silverstein was able to recover $4.55 billion (about 97% of the maximum recovery). 
  • If the matter did not settle, it was estimated that it would take another 2-3 years minimum of litigation, including appeals, to fully resolve the case. 

Discuss whether Mr. Silverstein had a valid claim and the impact of coverage on commercial insurance coverage. Your response should include what you have learned about commercial property insurance in the Unit and the applicable insurance provisions that may have resulted in coverage for the structures.